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Endometrical nuclei, prepared front rabbits subjected to different hormonal treatments, were used for the cell-free synthesis of RNA. Optimal conditions for the incorporation of [3H]UMP into RNA are described, leading to the synthesis of relatively undegraded RNA molecules. Under these conditions there is virtually no initiation of new RNA chains in vitro, and RNA chain elongation is inhibited up to 60% by low concentrations of α-amanitin and up to 90% by actinomycin D. The synthesis of RNA is slightly inhibited in the presence of Hg-CTP and monothioglycerol, but newly synthesized mercurated RNA can be efficiently separated from endogenous RNA upon chromatography on sulfhydryl-Sepharose under stringent conditions. The RNA synthesized in vitro by endometrial nuclei from pseudopregnant rabbits contains RNA sequences transcribed from the uteroglobin gene, as demonstrated by hybridization to an excess of purified preuteroglobin cDNA. In endometrial cells from pseudopregnant animals the number of RNA polymerase II molecules transcribing the uteroglobin gene is 12-fold higher than in control animals, demonstrating that at least part of the hormoNatly induced accumulation of preuteroglobin mRNA is due to an increased rate of transcription of the uteroglobin gene.