The complete amino-acid sequences of human ganglioside GM2 activator protein and cerebroside sulfate activator protein have been established by Edman degradation. The GM2 activator is composed of 162 amino acids, the first two serine residues being present in only 20% of the material. A single carbohydrate chain is N-glycosidically linked to Asn32. Three hydrophobic α-helices may contribute to its lipid-binding site. Three amino acids differ from those found by cDNA sequencing which may be due to a polymorphism. The cerebroside sulfate activator consists of 80 amino acids and carries one N-linked carbohydrate chain at Asn21. The C-terminal valine residue is lacking in about 80% of the material. In spite their similar functions, both activator proteins show no sequence or structural similarities.