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The gene encoding the yeast mitochondrial rotenone-insensitive internal NADH: ubiquinone-6 oxidoreductase has been sequenced. The DNA sequence indicates the presence of an open reading frame of 1539 bp predicted to encode a protein of 513 amino acid residues (57.2 kDa). The NADH dehydrogenase is synthesized as a precursor protein containing a signal sequence of 26 residues. In vitro import experiments show that the precursor NADH dehydrogenase is cleaved to the mature size by the matrix processing peptidase. Both cleavage and translocation across the mitochondrial membrane(s) are dependent on the membrane potential component of the proton-motive force. Comparison of the protein sequence of the yeast NADH dehydrogenase with the data bank indicates that the enzyme from yeast is homologous to the NADH dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli (22.2% identical residues). Both NADH dehydrogenases contain in the central part of the protein a sequence predicted to fold into a βαβ structure involved in the binding of NADH or FAD(H2). Various aspects of the protein structure are discussed.