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X-ray absorption spectra at the Fe K-edge of the non-heme iron site in Fe(II) as well as Fe(III) soybean lipoxygenase-1, in frozen solution or lyophilized, are presented; the latter spectra were obtained by incubation of the Fe(II) enzyme with its product hydroperoxide. An edge shift of about 2–3 eV to higher energy occurs upon oxidation of the Fe(II) enzyme to the Fe(III) species, corresponding to the valence change. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure shows clear differences in active-site structure as a result of this conversion. Curve-fitting on the new data of the Fe(II) enzyme, using the EXCURV88 program, leads to a coordination sphere that is in agreement with the active-site structure proposed earlier (6 ± 1 N/O ligands at 0.205–0.209 nm with a maximum variance of 0.009nm, including 4 ± 1 imidazole ligands) [Navaratnam, S., Feiters, M. C., Al-Hakim, M., Allen, J. C., Veldink, G. A. and Vliegenthart, J. F. G. (1988) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 956, 70–76], while for the Fe(III) enzyme a shortening in ligand distances occurs (6 ± 1 N/O ligands at 0.200–0.203 nm with maximum variance of 0.008 nm) and one imidazole is replaced by an oxygen ligand of unknown origin. Lyophilization does not lead to any apparent differences in the iron coordination of either species and gives a much better signal/noise ratio, allowing analysis of a larger range of data.