Many organisms have evolved novel mechanisms to minimize freezing injury due to extracellular ice formation. This article reviews our present knowledge on the structure and mode of action of two types of proteins capable of ice interaction. The antifreeze proteins inhibit ice crystal formation and alter ice growth habits. The ice nucleation proteins, on the other hand, provide a proper template to stimulate ice growth. The potential applications of these proteins in different industries are discussed.
ice nucleation activators
ice nucleation proteins
antifreeze proteins or polypeptides
cumulative ice nucleation frequency
number of cells