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The Saccharomyces cerevisiae PGM1 and PGM2 genes encoding two phosphoglucomutase isoenzymes have been isolated and sequenced. The drived protein sequences are closely related to one another and show distinct sequence similarities to the human and rabbit phosphoglucomutases, especially in the region supposed to constitute the active site. PGM1 and PGM2 are located on chromosomes XI and XIII, respectively, just upstream of the known genes YPK1 and YKR2 coding for a pair of closely related putative protein kinases. These observations suggest that an extended region of DNA arose by the process of gene duplication. Cells deleted for both, PGM1 and PGM2, could not grow on galactose. No residual phosphoglucomutase activity could be measured in crude extracts or in permeabilized cells of pgm1/2 double mutants. Unexpectedly, growth with glucose was not impaired and mutant cells were still able to accumulate trehalose and glycogen, although at a reduced level. Two further genes could be isolated and characterized which when over-expressed on a multi-copy plasmid could restore growth on galactose of the pgm1/2 double deletion mutant. Multi-copy complementation was due to a sharply increased level of phosphoglucomutase activity. Partial sequencing and characterization of the two genes revealed one of them to be SEC53 encoding phosphomannomutase. No extended sequence similarities could be found in the databases for the second gene. However, part of the derived amino acid sequence contained a region of high similarity to the active-site consensus sequence of hexosephosphate mutases from different organism. Further investigations suggest that a complex network of mutases exist in yeast which interact and can partially substitute for each other.