The human gene (PTGS2) encoding an inducible isozyme of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2) that is distinct from the well-characterized and constitutive isozyme (prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1), was isolated using a polymerase-chain reaction-generated cDNA fragment probe for human prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the entire human prostaglandin-endoperoxide-synthase-2 gene demonstrated that it is more than 8.3 kb in size and consists of ten exons; this gene is very similar to the murine and chicken prostaglandin-endoperoxide-synthase-2 genes. The structures of exons in the human prostaglandin-endoperoxide-synthase-2 gene were also similar to those of the human prostaglandin-endoperoxide-synthase-1 gene (PTGS1). However, the sizes of introns in the human prostaglandin-endoperoxide-synthase-2 gene were generally smaller than those of the human prostaglandin-endoperoxide-synthase-1 gene. Primer-extension analysis indicated that the transcriptional-start site is 134 bases upstream of the translational-initiation site. The sequence of the 1.69-kb region of nucleotides preceding the transcriptional-start site and the first 0.8-kb intron contained a canonical TATA box and various transcriptional-regulatory elements (CArG box, NF-IL6, PEA-1, myb, GATA-1, xenobiotic-response element, cAMP-response element, NF-κB, PEA-3, Sp-1 and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate-response element). The nucleotide sequence of the 5′-flanking region (275 bp) of the human prostaglandin-endoperoxide-synthase-2 gene showed 63% similarity to the sequence of murine prostaglandin-endoperoxide-synthase-2/TIS10 gene, but essentially no homology to the chicken prostaglandin-endoperoxide-synthase-2 gene, and human and murine prostaglandin-endoperoxide-synthase-1 genes. A fluorescence in situ hybridization study showed that the human genes coding for prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 (PTGS1) and prostaglandin-endoperoxidase synthase 2 (PTGS2) were mapped to distinct chromosomes 9q32-q33.3 and 1q25.2-q25.3, respectively, indicating that these genes are not genetically linked.