• 1
    Joklik, W. K. (1990) Interferons, in Virology (Fields, B. N. & Knipe, D. M., eds) 2nd edn, pp. 383410, Raven Press, New York .
  • 2
    Revel, M. & Chebath, J. (1986) Interferon-activated genes, Trends Biochem. Sci. 11, 166170.
  • 3
    Darnell, J. E. Jr, Kerr, I. M. & Stark, G. R. (1994) Jak-STAT pathways and transcriptional activation in response to IFNs and other extracellular signaling proteins, Science 264, 14151421.
  • 4
    Müller, M., Ibelgaufts, H. & Kerr, I. M. (1994) Interferon response pathways–a paradigm for cytokine signalling? J. Viral Hepatitis 1, 87103.
  • 5
    Ihle, J. N., Witthuhn, B. A., Quelle, F. W., Yamamoto, K., Thierfelder, W. E., Kreider, B. & Silvennoinen, O. (1994) Signaling by the cytokine receptor superfamily: JAKs and STATs, Trends Biochem. Sci. 19, 222227.
  • 6
    Guldner, H. H., Szostecki, C., Grötzinger, T. & Will, H. (1992) IFN enhance expression of Sp100, an autoantigen in primary biliary cirrhosis, J. Immunol. 149, 40674073.
  • 7
    Maul, G. G., Guldner, H. H. & Spivack, J. G. (1993) Modification of discrete nuclear domains induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 immediate early gene 1 product (ICP0), J. Gen. Virol. 74, 26792690.
  • 8
    Szostecki, C., Krippner, H., Penner, E. & Bautz, F. A. (1987) Autoimmune sera recognize a 100 kD nuclear protein antigen (sp-100), Clin. Exp. Immunol. 68, 108116.
  • 9
    Szostecki, C., Guldner, H. H., Netter, H. J. & Will, H. (1990) Isolation and characterization of cDNA encoding a human nuclear antigen predominantly recognized by autoantibodies from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, J. Immunol. 145, 43384347.
  • 10
    Szostecki, C., Will, H., Netter, H. J. & Guldner, H. H. (1992) Autoantibodies to the nuclear Sp100 protein in primary biliary cirrhosis: epitope specificity and immunoglobulin class distribution, Scand. J. Immunol. 36, 555564.
  • 11
    Sternsdorf, T., Guldner, H. H., Szostecki, C., Grötzinger, T. & Will, H. (1995) Two nuclear dot-associated proteins, PML and Sp100, are often co-autoimmunogenic in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, Scand. J. Immunol. 42, 257268.
  • 12
    Ascoli, C. A. & Maul, G. G. (1991) Identification of a novel nuclear domain, J. Cell Biol. 112, 785795.
  • 13
    Xie, K., Lambie, E. J. & Snyder, M. (1993) Nuclear dot antigens may specify transcriptional domains in the nucleus, Mol. Cell. Biol. 13, 61706179.
  • 14
    Korioth, F., Gieffers, C., Maul, G. G. & Frey, J. (1995) Molecular characterization of NDP52, a novel protein of the nuclear domain 10, which is redistributed upon virus infection and interferon treatment, J. Cell Biol. 130, 113.
  • 15
    Koken, M. H. M., Puvion-Dutilleul, I., Guillemin, M. C., Viron, A., Linares-Cruz, G., Stuurman, N., de Jong, L., Szostecki, C., Calvo, F., Chomienne, C., Degos, L., Puvion, E. & de Thé, H. (1994) The t(15;17) translocation alters a nuclear body in a retinoic acid-reversible fashion, EMBO J. 13, 10731083.
  • 16
    Weis, K., Rambaud, S., Lavau, C., Jansen, J., Carvalho, T., Carmo-Fonseca, M., Lamond, A. & Dejean, A. (1994) Retinoic acid regulates aberrant nuclear localization of PML-RARα in acute promyelocytic leukemia cells, Cell 76, 345356.
  • 17
    Dyck, J. A., Maul, G. G., Miller, W. H. Jr, Chen, J. D., Kakizuka, A. & Evans, R. M. (1994) A novel macromolecular structure is a target of the promyelocyte-retinoic acid receptor oncoprotein, Cell 76, 333343.
  • 18
    Terris, B., Baldin, V., Dubois, S., Degott, C., Flejou, J.-F., Hénin, D. & Dejean, A. (1995) PML nuclear bodies are general targets for inflammation and cell proliferation, Cancer Res. 55, 15901597.
  • 19
    Mu, Z.-M., Chin, K.-V., Liu, J.-H., Lozano, G. & Chang, K.-S. (1994) PML, a growth suppressor disrupted in acute promyelocytic leukemia, Mol. Cell. Biol. 14, 68586867.
  • 20
    Liu, J.-H., Mu, Z.-M. & Chang, K.-S. (1995) PML suppresses oncogenic transformation of NIH/3T3 cells by activated neu, J. Exp. Med. 181, 19651973.
  • 21
    Koken, M. H. M., Linares-Cruz, G., Quignon, F., Viron, A., Chelbi-Alix, M. K., Sobczak-Thépot, J., Juhlin, L., Degos, L., Calvo, F. & de Thé, H. (1995) The PML growth-suppressor has an altered expression in human oncogenesis, Oncogene 10, 13151324.
  • 22
    Kakizuka, A., Miller, W. H. Jr, Umesono, K., Warrell, R. P. Jr, Frankel, S. R., Murty, V. V. V. S., Dmitrovsky, E. & Evans, R. M. (1991) Chromosomal translocation t(15;17) in human acute promyelocytic leukemia fuses RARα with a novel putative transcription factor, PML, Cell 66, 663674.
  • 23
    de Thé, H., Chomienne, C., Lanotte, M., Degos, L. & Dejean, A. (1990) The t(15;17) translocation of acute promyelocytic leukaemia fuses the retinoic acid receptor α gene to a novel transcribed locus, Nature 347, 558561.
  • 24
    Puvion-Dutilleul, F., Chelbi-Alix, M. K., Koken, M. H. M., Quignon, F., Puvion, E. & de Thé, H. (1995) Adenovirus infection induces rearrangements in the intranuclear distribution of the nuclear body-associated PML protein, Exp. Cell Res. 218, 916.
  • 25
    Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E. F. & Maniatis, T. (1989) Molecular cloning–a laboratory manual, 2nd edn, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Habor , NY .
  • 26
    Laemmli, U. K. (1970) Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4, Nature 227, 680685.
  • 27
    Towbin, H., Staehelin, T. & Gordon, J. (1979) Electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets: procedure and some applications, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 76, 43504354.
  • 28
    Harlow, E. & Lane, D. (1988) Antibodies–a laboratory manual, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor , NY .
  • 29
    Greenberg, M. E. & Bender, T. P. (1990) Identification of newly transcribed RNA, in Current protocols in molecular biology (Ausubel, F. M., Brent, R., Kingston, R. E., Moore, D. D., Seidman, J. G., Smith, J. A. & Struhl, K., eds) pp., John Wiley & Sons, New York .
  • 30
    Fei, H. & Drake, T. A. (1993) A rapid nuclear runoff transcription assay, Biotechniques 15, 838.
  • 31
    Cheng, Y.-S. E., Patterson, C. E. & Staeheli, P. (1991) Interferon-induced guanylate-binding proteins lack an N(T)KXD consensus motif and bind GMP in addition to GDP and GTP, Mol. Cell. Biol. 11, 47174725.
  • 32
    Tso, J. Y., Sun, X.-H., Kao, T.-H., Reece, K. S. & Wu, R. (1985) Isolation and characterization of rat and human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase cDNAs: genomic complexity and molecular evolution of the gene, Nucleic Acids Res. 13, 24852502.
  • 33
    Gunning, P., Ponte, P., Okayama, H., Engel, J., Blau, H. & Kedes, L. (1983) Isolation and characterization of full-length cDNA clones for human α-, β, and γ-actin mRNAs: skeletal but not cytoplasmic actins have an amino-terminal cysteine that is subsequently removed, Mol. Cell. Biol. 3, 787795.
  • 34
    de Thé, H., Lavau, C., Marchio, A., Chomienne, C., Degos, L. & Dejean, A. (1991) The PML-RARα fusion mRNA generated by the t(15;17) translocation in acute promyelocytic leukemia encodes a functionally altered RAR, Cell 66, 675684.
  • 35
    Fagioli, M., Alcalay, M., Pandolfi, P. P., Venturini, L., Mencarelli, A., Simeone, A., Acampora, D., Grignani, F. & Pelicci, P. G. (1992) Alternative splicing of PML transcripts predicts coexpression of several carboxy-terminally different protein isoforms, Oncogene 7, 10831091.
  • 36
    Pandolfi, P. P., Alcalay, M., Fagioli, M., Zangrilli, D., Mencarelli, A., Diverio, D., Biondi, A., Lo Coco, F., Rambaldi, A., Grignani, F., Rochette-Egly, C., Gaube, M.-P., Chambon, P. & Pelicci, P. G. (1992) Genomic variability and alternative splicing generate multiple PML/RARα transcripts that encode aberrant PML proteins and PML/RARα isoforms in acute promyelocytic leukaemia. EMBO J. 11, 13971407.
  • 37
    Lew, D. J., Decker, T. & Darnell, J. E. Jr (1989) Alpha interferon and gamma interferon stimulate transcription of a single gene through different signal transduction pathways, Mol. Cell. Biol. 9, 54045411.
  • 38
    Levy, D. E., Lew, D. J., Decker, T., Kessler, D. S. & Darnell, J. E. Jr (1990) Synergistic interaction between interferon-α and interferon-γ through induced synthesis of one subunit of the transcription factor ISGF3, EMBO J. 9, 11051111.
  • 39
    Flenghi, L., Fagioli, M., Tomassoni, L., Pileri, S., Gambacorta, M., Pacini, R., Grignani, F., Casini, T., Ferrucci, P. F., Martelli, M. F., Pelicci, P.-G. & Falini, B. (1995) Characterization of a new monoclonal antibody (PG-M3) directed against the aminoterminal portion of the PML gene product: immunocytochemical evidence for high expression of PML proteins on activated macrophages, endothelial cells, and epithelia, Blood 85, 18711880.
  • 40
    Daniel, M. T., Koken, M., Romagné, O., Barbey, S., Bazarbachi, A., Stadler, M., Guillemin, M. C., Degos, L., Chomienne, C. & de Thé, H. (1993) PML protein expression in hematopoietic and acute promyelocytic leukemia cells, Blood 82, 18581867.
  • 41
    Giles, F. J. & Ozer, H. (1991) α-Interferon in hematological malignancies, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 2, 847850.
  • 42
    Friedman, R. L., Manly, S. P., McMahon, M., Kerr, I. M. & Stark, G. R. (1984) Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of interferon-induced gene expression in human cells, Cell 38, 745755.
  • 43
    Ackrill, A. M., Reid, L. E., Gilbert, C. S., Gewert, D. R., Porter, A. C. G., Lewin, A. R., Stark, G. R. & Kerr, I. M. (1991) Differential response of the human 6–16 and 9–27 genes to α and γ interferons, Nucleic Acids Res. 19, 591598.
  • 44
    Guille, M. J., Laxton, C. D., Rutherford, M. N., Williams, B. R. G. & Kerr, I. M. (1994) Functional differences in the promoters of the interferon-inducible (2′-5′)A oligoadenylate synthetase and 6–16 genes in interferon-resistant Daudi cells, Eur. J. Biochem. 219, 547553.