• chemokine;
  • macrophage;
  • CC-chemokine receptor 1;
  • lung;
  • leukocytes

A human monocyte-activating CC chemokine has been identified based on sequences in an expressed sequence tag (EST) cDNA database. The protein shows highest sequence identity to the macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) group of chemokines, particularly MIP-3 (76.7%) and MIP-1α (75.4%), and has been named MIP-5. Model building confirms that the protein has a similar three dimensional structure to other chemokines, but has an additional third disulphide bond. Northern blot analysis and reverse-transcriptase PCR show that the mRNA for MIP-5 is expressed at a high levels in liver, intestine and in lung leukocytes. MIP-5 induces chemotaxis of human monocytes, T-lymphocytes and, to a lesser degree, eosinophils at nanomolar concentrations; it has no effect on neutrophil migration. In receptor-binding assays, MIP-5 shows IC50 values of 12 nM for competition with 125I-MIP-la for binding to CC-chemokine receptor (CCR)l, and 2.5 nM for competition with 125I-MCP-3 for binding to CCR3. It shows no ability to compete with ligand for binding to the two interleukin (IL)-8 receptors (CXC-chemokine receptors 1 and 2) or to CCR2, CCR4 or CCR5. Consistent with this binding data, MIP-5 was only able to induce calcium fluxes in CHO cells stably transfected with CCR1 or CCR3.