Caerin 1.1 is one of the major antimicrobial peptides isolated from the skin of the Australian green tree frog, Litoria splendida. Two-dimensional 1H-1H and 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy in trifluoroethanol/ H2O (50:50, by vol.) have been used to assign the 1H and 13C-NMR spectra of this 25-amino-acid peptide. From an examination of these data, and using distance geometry and molecular dynamics calculations, the solution conformation of caerin 1.1 has been determined. The peptide adopts two well-defined helices from Leu2 to Lys11 and from Val17 to His24 separated by a region of less-defined helicity and greater flexibility. Overall, the peptide has a distinct amphipathic charge distribution. The solution structure of caerin 1.1 is compared with activity data against a variety of micro-organisms for the parent peptide and some naturally occurring and synthetic variants of caerin 1.1. The structural and activity data are consistent with caerin 1.1 interacting with membranes in a similar manner to other antimicrobial peptides, i.e. via a carpet-like mechanism whereby the individual peptides aggregate in a helical manner and orient themselves parallel to the membrane in a sheet-like arrangement [Shai, Y. (1995) Trends Biochem. Sci. 20, 460–464].
- DQF COSY
double-quantum-filtered correlation spectroscopy
heteronuclear single-quantum coherence
minimum inhibitory concentration
restrained molecular dynamics
- 1D and 2D
one- and two-dimensional