Abstract The outcome of OLT for HBV-related liver disease is dependent on the prevention of allograft re-infection. Over the past decade, major advances have been made in the management of HBV transplant candidates. The advent of long-term hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) administration as a prophylaxis against HBV recurrence, and the introduction of new antiviral agents against HBV infection, such as lamivudine (LAM), were a major breakthrough in the management of these patients. Results of OLT for HBV infection are similar to those achieved with other indications. Pre-OLT antiviral treatment such as LAM can suppress HBV replication before OLT and thus decrease the risk of re-infection of the graft. Combination prophylaxis with LAM and HBIG after transplantation highly effectively reduces the rate of HBV re-infection, even in HBV replicative cirrhotic, patients. The optimal HBIG protocol in the LAM era is yet to be defined: dosing of HBIG, routes of administration, and possibility of stopping HBIG. Several antiviral drugs have been developed for the management of HBV infection on the graft, so outcome is currently good.