Arterial complications have a major impact on survival after liver transplantation (LTx). The aim of this study was to examine arterial complications in adults and children after LTx. A total of 1000 consecutive primary LTx patients [mean age 40.5 years: 600 males, 400 females, 834 adults; 166 children (age <18 years)] were studied. Forty-two patients (4.2%; 31 adults, 11 children) developed hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT). Thrombosis in children occurred significantly early (mean 5.4 days) compared with adults (mean 418.7 days, P = 0.0001). Nonthrombotic complications occurred in 30 patients (29 adults, one child). Overall, 13-year patient survival after HAT was 43.2% (72.7% children, 32.9% adults). For nonthrombotic complications, 54.3% of adults died and 69.4% grafts were lost. An overall incidence of 4.2% thrombotic and 3.2% nonthrombotic complications was observed. Rate of HAT was higher in children, but survival was better compared with adults.