Tobacco and immunosuppression are risk factors for developing upper aerodigestive and lung tumors after transplantation. This study comprises 701 adult recipients who survived more than 2 months after transplant: 276 patients underwent orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) for alcoholic cirrhosis (AC) and 425 for nonalcoholic disease. The aim is to analyze the incidence, clinical characteristics, risk factors, and outcome of patients who develop lung malignancies after OLT. Incidence of lung cancer was 2.1% (15 patients): 4.3% (12 patients) in the alcoholic group and 0.7% (three patients) in the nonalcoholic group (P < 0.001). Mean time from OLT to tumor diagnosis was 86 months. Thirteen patients were smokers; 12 patients were heavy drinkers; and 11 were drinkers and smokers. Squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed in nine patients, large cell carcinoma in three, adenocarcinoma in two, and broncoalveolar in one. Tumor staging: 10 patients at stage IV; three at stage IIIB; and two at stage IIB. Tumor resection was performed in one patient, and three also received chemotherapy. Mean survival after tumor diagnosis was 5.4 months. There is a higher risk of lung cancer in smoker patients who have undergone OLT for AC, and have a very poor prognosis because tumors are diagnosed at advanced stages.