• 1
    Auchincloss Jr H, Sultan H. Antigen processing and presentation in transplantation. Curr Opin Immunol 1996; 8: 681.
  • 2
    Lombardi G, Sidhu S, Daly M, Batchelor JR, Makgoba W, Lechler RI. Are primary alloresponses truly primary? Int Immunol 1990; 2: 9.
  • 3
    Benichou G, Valujskikh A, Heeger PS. Contributions of direct and indirect T cell alloreactivity during allograft rejection in mice. J Immunol 1999; 162: 352.
  • 4
    Braun MY, Grandjean I, Feunou P, et al. Acute rejection in the absence of cognate recognition of allograft by T cells. J Immunol 2001; 166: 4879.
  • 5
    Wise MP, Bemelman F, Cobbold SP, Waldmann H. Linked suppression of skin graft rejection can operate through indirect recognition. J Immunol 1998; 161: 5813.
  • 6
    Yamada A, Chandraker A, Laufer TM, Gerth AJ, Sayegh MH, Auchincloss Jr H Recipient MHC class II expression is required to achieve long-term survival of murine cardiac allografts after costimulatory blockade. J Immunol 2001; 167: 5522.
  • 7
    Sayegh MH, Khoury SJ, Hancock WW, Weiner HL, Carpenter CB. Induction of immunity and oral tolerance with polymorphic class II major histocompatibility complex allopeptides in the rat. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992; 89: 7762.
  • 8
    Niederkorn JY, Mayhew E. Phenotypic analysis of oral tolerance to alloantigens: evidence that the indirect pathway of antigen presentation is involved. Transplantation 2002; 73: 1493.
  • 9
    Hara M, Kingsley CI, Niimi M, et al. IL-10 is required for regulatory T cells to mediate tolerance to alloantigens in vivo. J Immunol 2001; 166: 3789.
  • 10
    Sakaguchi S, Sakaguchi N. Thymus and autoimmunity: capacity of the normal thymus to produce pathogenic self-reactive T cells and conditions required for their induction of autoimmune disease. J Exp Med 1990; 172: 537.
  • 11
    Sakaguchi S, Sakaguchi N, Asano M, Itoh M, Toda M. Immunologic self-tolerance maintained by activated T cells expressing IL-2 receptor alpha-chains (CD25). Breakdown of a single mechanism of self-tolerance causes various autoimmune diseases. J Immunol 1995; 155: 1151.
  • 12
    Sakaguchi S, Sakaguchi N, Shimizu J, et al. Immunologic tolerance maintained by CD25+ CD4+ regulatory T cells: their common role in controlling autoimmunity, tumor immunity, and transplantation tolerance. Immunol Rev 2001; 182: 18.
  • 13
    Salomon B, Lenschow DJ, Rhee L, et al. B7/CD28 costimulation is essential for the homeostasis of the CD4+CD25+ immunoregulatory T cells that control autoimmune diabetes. Immunity 2000; 12: 431.
  • 14
    Shevach EM. Regulatory T cells in autoimmunity. Annu Rev Immunol 2000; 18: 423.
  • 15
    Kim J, Rasmussen J, Rudensky A. Regulatory T cells prevent catastrophic autoimmunity throughout the lifespan of mice. Nat Immunol 2007; 8: 191.
  • 16
    Kingsley CI, Karim M, Bushell AR, Wood KJ. CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells prevent graft rejection: CTLA-4- and IL-10- dependent immunoregulation of alloresponses. J Immunol 2002; 168: 1080.
  • 17
    Sanchez-Fueyo A, Weber M, Domenig C, Strom TB, Zheng XX. Tracking the immunoregulatory mechanisms active during allograft tolerance. J Immunol 2002; 168: 2274.
  • 18
    Graca L, Thompson S, Lin CY, Adams E, Cobbold SP, Waldmann H. Both CD4(+)CD25(+) and CD4(+)CD25(−) regulatory cells mediate dominant transplantation tolerance. J Immunol 2002; 168: 5558.
  • 19
    Lechler RI, Garden OA, Turka LA. The complementary roles of deletion and regulation in transplantation tolerance. Nat Rev Immunol 2003; 3: 147.
  • 20
    Jiang S, Herrera O, Lechler RI. New spectrum of allorecognition pathways: implications for graft rejection and transplantation tolerance. Curr Opin Immunol 2004; 16: 550.
  • 21
    Sakaguchi S. Naturally arising CD4+ regulatory T cells for immunological self-tolerance and negative control of immune responses. Annu Rev Immunol 2004; 22: 531.
  • 22
    Taylor PA, Lees CJ, Blazar BR. The infusion of ex vivo activated and expanded CD4(+)CD25(+) immune regulatory cells inhibits graft-versus-host disease lethality. Blood 2002; 99: 3493.
  • 23
    Jordan MS, Boesteanu A, Reed AJ, et al. Thymic selection of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells induced by an agonist self-peptide. Nat Immunol 2001; 2: 301.
  • 24
    Apostolou I, Sarukhan A, Klein L, Von Boehmer H. Origin of regulatory T cells with known specificity for antigen. Nat Immunol 2002; 3: 756.
  • 25
    Von Boehmer H. Dynamics of suppressor T cells: in vivo veritas. J Exp Med 2003; 198: 845.
  • 26
    Romagnoli P, Hudrisier D, Van Meerwijk JP. Preferential recognition of self antigens despite normal thymic deletion of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells. J Immunol 2002; 168: 1644.
  • 27
    Hsieh CS, Liang Y, Tyznik AJ, Self SG, Liggitt D, Rudensky AY. Recognition of the peripheral self by naturally arising CD25+ CD4+ T cell receptors. Immunity 2004; 21: 267.
  • 28
    Karim M, Kingsley CI, Bushell AR, Sawitzki BS, Wood KJ. Alloantigen-induced CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells can develop in vivo from CD25-CD4+ precursors in a thymus-independent process. J Immunol 2004; 172: 923.
  • 29
    Apostolou I, Von Boehmer H. In vivo instruction of suppressor commitment in naive T cells. J Exp Med 2004; 199: 1401.
  • 30
    Ochando JC, Homma C, Yang Y, et al. Alloantigen-presenting plasmacytoid dendritic cells mediate tolerance to vascularized grafts. Nat Immunol 2006; 7: 652.
  • 31
    Auchincloss Jr H, Lee R, Shea S, Markowitz JS, Grusby MJ, Glimcher LH. The role of ‘indirect’ recognition in initiating rejection of skin grafts from major histocompatibility complex class II-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993; 90: 3373.
  • 32
    Yamada A, Laufer TM, Gerth AJ, et al. Further analysis of the T-cell subsets and pathways of murine cardiac allograft rejection. Am J Transplant 2003; 3: 23.
  • 33
    Katz SI, Tamaki K, Sachs DH. Epidermal Langerhans cells are derived from cells originating in bone marrow. Nature 1979; 282: 324.
  • 34
    Stingl G, Tamaki K, Katz SI. Origin and function of epidermal Langerhans cells. Immunol Rev 1980; 53: 149.
  • 35
    Merad M, Manz MG, Karsunky H, et al. Langerhans cells renew in the skin throughout life under steady-state conditions. Nat Immunol 2002; 3: 1135.
  • 36
    Sanchez-Fueyo A, Tian J, Picarella D, et al. Tim-3 inhibits T helper type 1-mediated auto- and alloimmune responses and promotes immunological tolerance. Nat Immunol 2003; 4: 1093.
  • 37
    Lagaaij EL, Hennemann IP, Ruigrok M, et al. Effect of one-HLA-DR-antigen-matched and completely HLA-DR-mismatched blood transfusions on survival of heart and kidney allografts. N Engl J Med 1989; 321: 701.
  • 38
    Game DS, Hernandez-Fuentes MP, Chaudhry AN, Lechler RI. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells do not significantly contribute to direct pathway hyporesponsiveness in stable renal transplant patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 2003; 14: 1652.
  • 39
    Salama AD, Najafian N, Clarkson MR, Harmon WE, Sayegh MH. Regulatory CD25+ T cells in human kidney transplant recipients. J Am Soc Nephrol 2003; 14: 1643.
  • 40
    Hsieh CS, Zheng Y, Liang Y, Fontenot JD, Rudensky AY. An intersection between the self-reactive regulatory and nonregulatory T cell receptor repertoires. Nat Immunol 2006; 7: 401.
  • 41
    Teh HS, Harley E, Phillips RA, Miller RG. Quantitative studies on the precursors of cytotoxic lymphocytes. I. Characterization of a clonal assay and determination of the size of clones derived from single precursors. J Immunol 1977; 118: 1049.
  • 42
    Teh HS, Phillips RA, Miller RG. Quantitative studies on the precursors of cytotoxic lymphocytes. II. Specificity of precursors responsive to alloantigens and to concanavalin A. J Immunol 1977; 118: 1057.
  • 43
    Suchin EJ, Langmuir PB, Palmer E, Sayegh MH, Wells AD, Turka LA. Quantifying the frequency of alloreactive T cells in vivo: new answers to an old question. J Immunol 2001; 166: 973.
  • 44
    Li XC, Strom TB, Turka LA, Wells AD. T cell death and transplantation tolerance. Immunity 2001; 14: 407.
  • 45
    Gavin MA, Clarke SR, Negrou E, Gallegos A, Rudensky A. Homeostasis and anergy of CD4(+)CD25(+) suppressor T cells in vivo. Nat Immunol 2002; 3: 33.
  • 46
    Zheng XX, Sanchez-Fueyo A, Sho M, Domenig C, Sayegh MH, Strom TB. Favorably tipping the balance between cytopathic and regulatory T cells to create transplantation tolerance. Immunity 2003; 19: 503.
  • 47
    Hoffmann P, Ermann J, Edinger M, Fathman CG, Strober S. Donor-type CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells suppress lethal acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. J Exp Med 2002; 196: 389.
  • 48
    Edinger M, Hoffmann P, Ermann J, et al. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells preserve graft-versus-tumor activity while inhibiting graft-versus-host disease after bone marrow transplantation. Nat Med 2003; 9: 1144.
  • 49
    Peugh WN, Superina RA, Wood KJ, Morris PJ. The role of H-2 and non-H-2 antigens and genes in the rejection of murine cardiac allografts. Immunogenetics 1986; 23: 30.
  • 50
    Lechler RI, Batchelor JR. Restoration of immunogenicity to passenger cell-depleted kidney allografts by the addition of donor strain dendritic cells. J Exp Med 1982; 155: 31.