No evidence of occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in serum of HCV antibody-positive HCV RNA-negative kidney-transplant patients

Authors

  • Florence Nicot,

    1.  INSERM, U563, Toulouse, France
    2.  Department of Virology, CHU Toulouse, Purpan Hospital, Toulouse, France
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  • Nassim Kamar,

    1.  Université Toulouse III Paul-Sabatier, Centre de Physiopathologie de Toulouse Purpan, Toulouse, France
    2.  Department of Nephrology, Dialysis and Multiorgan Transplantation, CHU Toulouse, Rangueil Hospital, Toulouse, France
    3.  INSERM, U858, Toulouse, France
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  • Bernard Mariamé,

    1.  INSERM, U563, Toulouse, France
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  • Lionel Rostaing,

    1.  INSERM, U563, Toulouse, France
    2.  Université Toulouse III Paul-Sabatier, Centre de Physiopathologie de Toulouse Purpan, Toulouse, France
    3.  Department of Nephrology, Dialysis and Multiorgan Transplantation, CHU Toulouse, Rangueil Hospital, Toulouse, France
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  • Christophe Pasquier,

    1.  INSERM, U563, Toulouse, France
    2.  Department of Virology, CHU Toulouse, Purpan Hospital, Toulouse, France
    3.  Université Toulouse III Paul-Sabatier, Centre de Physiopathologie de Toulouse Purpan, Toulouse, France
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  • Jacques Izopet

    1.  INSERM, U563, Toulouse, France
    2.  Department of Virology, CHU Toulouse, Purpan Hospital, Toulouse, France
    3.  Université Toulouse III Paul-Sabatier, Centre de Physiopathologie de Toulouse Purpan, Toulouse, France
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Prof. Jacques Izopet, Laboratoire de Virologie, Institut Fédératif de Biologie, CHU Toulouse, 330 avenue de Grande-Bretagne, TSA40031, Toulouse 31059, France. Tel.: 33 5 67 69 04 24; fax: 33 5 67 69 04 25; e-mail: izopet.j@chu-toulouse.fr

Summary

Persistence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients who cleared HCV is still debated. Occult HCV infection is described as the presence of detectable HCV RNA in liver or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with undetectable plasma HCV-RNA by conventional PCR assays. We have assessed the persistence of HCV in 26 kidney-transplant patients, followed up for 10.5 years (range 2–16), after HCV elimination while on hemodialysis. If HCV really did persist, arising out of the loss of immune control caused by institution of the regimen of immunosuppressive drugs after kidney transplantation, HCV reactivation would have taken place. Their immunosuppression relied on calcineurin inhibitors (100%), and/or steroids (62%), and/or antimetabolites (94%). An induction therapy, given to 22 patients, relied on rabbit antithymocyte globulin (59%) or anti-IL2-receptor blockers (32%). All patients had undetectable HCV RNA as ascertained by several conventional tests. At the last follow-up, no residual HCV RNA was detected in the five liver biopsies, the 26 plasma, and in the 37 nonstimulated and 24 stimulated PBMCs tested with an ultrasensitive RT-PCR assay (detection limit, 2 IU/ml). No biochemical or virologic relapse was seen during follow-up. The absence of HCV relapse in formerly HCV-infected immunocompromised patients suggests the complete eradication of HCV after its elimination while on dialysis.

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