• immunogenicity;
  • immunomodulation;
  • mesenchymal stromal cells;
  • tissue engineering


Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), a rare heterogeneous subset of pluripotent stromal cells that can be easily isolated from different adult tissues, in vitro expanded and differentiated into multiple lineages, are immune privileged and, more important, display immunomodulatory capacities. Because of this, they are the preferred cell source in tissue-engineered replacements, not only in autogeneic conditions, where they do not evoke any immune response, but especially in the setting of allogeneic organ and tissue replacements. However, more preclinical and clinical studies are requested to completely understand MSC’s immune biology and possible clinical applications. We herein review the immunogenicity and immunomodulatory properties of MSCs, their possible mechanisms and potential clinical use for tissue-engineered organ and tissue replacement.