Conflicts of Interest The authors disclose no conflict of interest.
The Montreal Criteria for the Ethical Feasibility of Uterine Transplantation
Article first published online: 23 FEB 2012
© 2012 The Authors. Transplant International © 2012 European Society for Organ Transplantation
Volume 25, Issue 4, pages 439–447, April 2012
How to Cite
Lefkowitz, A., Edwards, M. and Balayla, J. (2012), The Montreal Criteria for the Ethical Feasibility of Uterine Transplantation. Transplant International, 25: 439–447. doi: 10.1111/j.1432-2277.2012.01438.x
Synopsis: Uterine transplantation is under investigation for the treatment of uterine factor infertility. Before the transplant becomes standard practice, an ethical framework should be established.
- Issue published online: 14 MAR 2012
- Article first published online: 23 FEB 2012
- Received: 13 September 2011 Revision requested: 21 October 2011 Accepted: 15 January 2012
- reproductive endocrinology;
- uterus transplantation;
- uterine transplant;
- uterine factor infertility
Absolute uterine factor infertility (UFI) refers to the refractory causes of female infertility stemming from the anatomical or physiological inability of a uterus to sustain gestation. Today, uterine factor infertility affects 3–5% of the population. Traditionally, although surrogacy and adoption have been the only viable options for females affected by this condition, the uterine transplant is currently under investigation as a potential medical alternative for women who desire to go through the experience of pregnancy. Although animal models have shown promising results, human transplantation cases have only been described in case reports and a successful transplant leading to gestation is yet to occur in humans. Notwithstanding the intricate medical and scientific complexities that a uterine transplant places on the medical minds of our time, ethical questions on this matter pose a similar, if not greater, challenge. In light of these facts, this article attempts to present the ethical issues in the context of experimentation and standard practice which surround this controversial and potentially paradigm-altering procedure; and given these, introduces “The Montreal Criteria for the Ethical Feasibility of Uterine Transplantation”, a set of proposed criteria required for a woman to be ethically considered a candidate for uterine transplantation.