• histocompatibility and immunogenetics;
  • presensitization


The introduction of new sensitive assays for the detection of HLA antibodies on basis of their binding to isolated HLA molecules has got an enormous impact on the decision-making process with respect to donor selection for sensitized patients. In the past, when only complement-dependent cytotoxicity was used as a tool to define HLA alloantibodies, the presence of donor specific antibodies (DSA) before transplantation was considered a contraindication for renal transplantation with that donor. The interpretation of the current DSA results is far more difficult and leads to a lot of discussions and controversy. The problems associated with the use of solid phase assays for clinical decision making and possible solutions are discussed.