Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the inevitable by-products of essential cellular metabolic and physiological activities. Plants have developed sophisticated gene networks of ROS generation and scavenging systems. However, ROS regulation is still poorly understood. Here, we report that mutations in the Arabidopsis CPR5/OLD1 gene may cause early senescence through deregulation of the cellular redox balance. Genetic analysis showed that blocking stress-related hormonal signalling pathways, such as ethylene, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, abscisic acid and sugar, did not affect premature cell death and leaf senescence. We took a bioinformatics approach and analysed publicly available transcriptome data of presymptomatic cpr5/old1 mutants. The results demonstrate that many genes in the ROS gene network show at least fivefold increases in transcripts in comparison with those of wild-type plants, suggesting that presymptomatic cpr5/old1 mutants are in a state of high-cellular oxidative stress. This was further confirmed by a comparative, relative quantitative proteomics study of Arabidopsis wild-type and cpr5/old1 mutant plants, which demonstrated that several Phi family members of glutathione s-transferases significantly increased in abundance. In summary, our genetic, transcriptomic and relative quantitative proteomics analyses indicate that CPR5 plays a central role in regulating redox balance in Arabidopsis.