Inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL) protects pepper plants from subsequent infection with Phytophthora capsici. In the present paper, the level of local and systemic protection achieved by plants induced with FOL was evaluated by quantifying the pathogen biomass and using real-time PCR. Differences in the amount of pathogen were found in stems and roots between FOL-treated and untreated plants, while pathogen biomass could not be detected in leaves of induced plants. Five defence-related genes coding for a PR-1 protein, a β-1,3-glucanase, a chitinase, a peroxidase and a sesquiterpene cyclase were up-regulated 48 h after treatment in all the tissues studied, and maximal mRNAs levels were found in leaves.