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Keywords:

  • Actomyosin;
  • Cnx1 protein;
  • cortical microtubules;
  • molybdenum;
  • Pisum sativum;
  • tungsten

Abstract

Tungsten (W) is increasingly shown to be toxic to various organisms, including plants. Apart from inactivation of molybdo-enzymes, other potential targets of W toxicity in plants, especially at the cellular level, have not yet been revealed. In the present study, the effect of W on the cortical microtubule array of interphase root tip cells was investigated, in combination with the possible antagonism of W for the pathway of molybdenum (Mo). Pisum sativum seedlings were treated with W, Mo or a combination of the two, and cortical microtubules were examined using tubulin immunofluorescnce and TEM. Treatments with anti-microtubule (oryzalin, colchicine and taxol) or anti-actomyosin (cytochalasin D, BDM or ML-7) drugs and W were also performed. W-affected cortical microtubules were low in number, short, not uniformly arranged and were resistant to anti-microtubule drugs. Cells pre-treated with oryzalin or colchicine and then treated with W displayed W-affected microtubules, while cortical microtubules pre-stabilized with taxol were resistant to W. Treatment with Mo and anti-actomyosin drugs prevented W from affecting cortical microtubules. Cortical microtubule recovery after W treatment was faster in Mo solution than in water. The results indicate that cortical microtubules of plant cells are indirectly affected by W, most probably through a mechanism depending on the in vivo antagonism of W for the Mo-binding site of Cnx1 protein.