The plant volatile monoterpene citral is a highly active compound with suggested allelopathic traits. Seed germination and seedling development are inhibited in the presence of citral, and it disrupts microtubules in both plant and animal cells in interphase. We addressed the following additional questions: can citral interfere with cell division; what is the relative effect of citral on mitotic microtubules compared to interphase cortical microtubules; what is its effect on newly formed cell plates; and how does it affect the association of microtubules with γ-tubulin? In wheat seedlings, citral led to inhibition of root elongation, curvature of newly formed cell walls and deformation of microtubule arrays. Citral’s effect on microtubules was both dose- and time-dependent, with mitotic microtubules appearing to be more sensitive to citral than cortical microtubules. Association of γ-tubulin with microtubules was more sensitive to citral than were the microtubules themselves. To reveal the role of disrupted mitotic microtubules in dictating aberrations in cell plates in the presence of citral, we used tobacco BY2 cells expressing GFP-Tua6. Citral disrupted mitotic microtubules, inhibited the cell cycle and increased the frequency of asymmetric cell plates in these cells. The time scale of citral’s effect in BY2 cells suggested a direct influence on cell plates during their formation. Taken together, we suggest that at lower concentrations, citral interferes with cell division by disrupting mitotic microtubules and cell plates, and at higher concentrations it inhibits cell elongation by disrupting cortical microtubules.