The present works examined an adverse effect of chlorpyrifos insecticide on testes and lipid peroxidation at low doses (5 mg–10 mg kg−1 body weight) and the role of antioxidant enzymes systems at higher doses (20–30 mg kg−1 body weight) in albino rats. At low doses, reduction in plasma levels of testosterone and FSH and LH hormones along with the significant shrinkage of seminiferous tubules and gametogenic changes in germ cells were noticed. But these changes were restored with the revival of serum testosterone, FSH and LH along with regression of testis at higher doses. Similarly, level of testicular lipid peroxidation was elevated, whereas levels of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and steroidogenic enzymes activities (Δ5, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) were reduced significantly at low doses. But, rat testes showed a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation and concomitant increase in antioxidant enzymes and steroidogenic enzymes activities at higher doses. Results showed that at higher doses of chlorpyrifos treatments, rat testes were shown to trigger their natural defence mechanism which became operative possibly through corrective measure of synthesis of antioxidant defence enzymes and steroidogenic enzymes and pituitary gonadotrophins hormone feedback mechanisms.