Feeding, mating behaviour, communication, breeding biology, and development of Pipa carvalhoi are described. Like in other species of the genus Pipa, the eggs are laid onto the ♀ back during several turnovers, and this behaviour cau be observed even in the absence of ♂♂ Acoustic communication involves a mating call and a combat call. The biology and behaviour of Pipa carvalhoi are compared to that of other pipid frogs, and it is suggested that the specialized breeding biology of the genus Pipa evolved as an adaptation to the life in small ponds and ditches which are rich in nutrients but poor in oxygen.