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Abstract

Three freeliving one-male-units (OMU), each with two ♀♀ and several young were followed on the daily march and at the sleeping cliff. Three more OMUs of the same size were studied during experiments in a field enclosure. In all OMUs the ♀♀ could be differentiated by their spatial position in the group. According to their positions the ♀♀ exhibited different behaviors. The central ♀♀ were more socially engaged, while the peripheral ♀♀ exhibited more habitat-oriented behaviors. The central-peripheral differentiation appeared to be stabilized by differences between the ♀♀: The central ♀♀ tended to be younger and higher in rank; the peripheral ♀♀ showed a greater independence and efficiency in habitat-related behavior.