Non-random Mating in the Dance Fly Empis borealis: The Importance of Male Choice


Department of Zoology, Section of Entomology, Uppsala University, Box 561, S-751 22 Uppsala.


In the dance-fly Empis borealis (Diptera, Empididae), females form swarms to which males, carrying a nuptial gift, come for mating. We examined whether males or females were choosy and/or competed for mates.

First, measurements of the size relationships between copulating males and females, nuptial gifts and the swarming females from different swarms were assessed. Second, male visiting time in differently sized female swarms was recorded.

Larger (wing-length) females participated disproportionately in copulations in each swarm, but not for the population at large. Female mating status (virgin/non-virgin) or proximity to oviposition (egg size) did not influence the likelihood of copulation. No assortative mating pattern was found: male size and size of nuptial gift did not correlate with size of the mating female.

The time spent by males in swarms increased with the number of females present and it took longer when males left a swarm without copulation than when doing so. Male visiting time per female was negatively correlated with number of females in swarms. Males more often left smaller than larger swarms without mating.

We conclude that E. borealis males discriminate among females but find no evidence for male competition or for female choice. It is still a question to what degree females compete for males.