Field playback experiments were conducted in the Kibale Forest, Uganda to determine whether three monkeys (redtail monkeys, blue monkeys, and red colobus monkeys) and one bird (great blue turaco) [1] respond with flight and/or increased vigilance to exemplars of calls given by potential predators (crowned eagle, chimpanzee) and [2] respond differently to food competitors vs. noncompetitors (black-and-white casqued hornbill, chimpanzee vs. red colobus). Because the chimpanzee is both a potential predator of all subject species and a food competitor of blue and redtail monkeys and great blue turacos, we also examined whether chimpanzee calls induced responses appropriate to potential predation or competition. Each subject species responded differentially to the calls of potential predators, competitors and noncompetitors. Thus, acoustic cues appeared sufficient for the detection of predators and competitors.