SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

Abstract

In addition to courting females, male threespine sticklebacks must guard their nests from attacks on the eggs by female cannibals. We hypothesized that the presence of females in high densities in tide pools adversely affects a male's health and reproductive success. In the laboratory males housed with conspecific females during the breeding season were in poorer physical condition and died sooner than solitary males and males housed with conspecific males or with heterospecific females.