Arena headings, vanishing bearings and homing times were recorded in the digger wasp Argogorytes carbonarius after displacement in ‘open’ or closed (‘box’) containers during two time periods. The periods differed in two ways: 1. wasps were assumed to be inexperienced with the release site during the first period, whereas during the second period they were assumed to be familiar with it; 2. during the first period the arena was open on all sides, during the second it was surrounded by a wall.
All wasps chose arena headings and vanishing bearings in or close to the direction of the sun's azimuth during the first period and there was no difference in homing times between ‘open’ and ‘closed’ wasps. These directions also were chosen by all wasps during the second period in the arena and also by ‘open’ wasps at vanishing. ‘Box’ wasps, however, vanished preferably in the sector of home direction. They also reached home faster than in the first period. The results are discussed with respect to landmark orientation and the path-integration hypotheses.