Polistes atrimandibularis is the obligate and permanent parasite of the social paper wasp Polistes biglumis bimaculatus. This parasite lives together with the host foundress for a considerable period on the invaded nest. Ovarian development was measured in females of the host species (foundresses and, when present, workers) from 18 parasitized and 14 non-parasitized colonies. The reproductive capacity of foundresses from parasitized nests decreased faster than that of foundresses from non-parasitized nests. These results indicate that the presence of the parasite lowers reproductive capacity of the host queen. Simultaneously, the fertility of the host worker is inhibited.