The ability to assess and respond to predation risk is a strong selective force. Detection of predators is carried out by one or more sensory modalities, but the use of chemoreception has significant advantages. This study examines the chemosensorial assessment of snake predation risk and corresponding behaviours in different species and populations of Liolaemus lizards naturally exposed to different levels of snake predation pressure. The species studied were sympatric (Liolaemus lemniscatus), parapatric (L. nigroviridis) and allopatric (L. fitzgeraldi) to the saurophagous snake, Philodryas chamissonis. Additionally, two populations of L. lemniscatus from areas differing in snake densities were compared. Chemo-assessment of predation risk was determined by comparing the number of tongue-flicks (TF) and the behavioural responses of lizards submitted to three treatments (with semiochemicals of snake, conspecifics, and without semiochemicals – control). The results suggest that Liolaemus lizards can chemo-assess snake predation risk, but this was modulated by the predation pressure experienced by lizards in their natural habitats. When exposed to snake semiochemicals, the sympatric prey showed less chemical exploratory behaviour (i.e. lower number of TF), a higher frequency of antipredator behaviours that would reduce its detection by a predator, and did not show the behaviour triggered by conspecific semiochemicals. The parapatric prey showed similar number of TF across different treatments, suggesting an absence of recognition of snake semiochemicals; however, it did show antipredatory behaviours when confronted with snake semiochemicals. The allopatric prey showed similar behaviour in all treatments. Both populations of the sympatric species, L. lemniscatus, showed a similar ability to detect predation risk when confronted with snake semiochemicals (i.e. similar number of TF), but antipredatory behaviours were diminished, and marking behaviours were present in the population subject to lower predation pressure. Relaxed predation pressure from a predator that releases and detects semiochemicals had similar consequences at species and population levels.