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Abstract

Crossing of genetically differentiated populations often results in assortative mating within populations. However, asymmetric sexual isolation or negative assortative mating has occasionally been reported. Previous studies suggested that sexual selection or sexual conflicts would lead to asymmetric mating when local populations are crossed. In order to evaluate the extent of assortative or disassortative mating in population crosses, we conducted laboratory crosses using the flightless grasshopper Podisma sapporensis. Crossing was conducted for all pairwise combinations of three populations, 150–240 km from one another – Teine, Shimokawa, and Akan. We found evidence for asymmetric mating for all the pairs of the populations. In particular, when the Teine and Akan populations were crossed, mating in the Teine male–Akan female cross was significantly more frequent than mating in both within-population crosses, whereas mating in the Teine female–Akan male cross was significantly less frequent than mating in both within-population crosses. We examined whether these results can be explained by any of the three hypotheses: (1) Kaneshiro's hypothesis, (2) differentiation in attractiveness, or (3) coevolution between male vigor and female receptivity. All the results were consistent with male vigor differing between populations balanced by different female potential to reject males. The available evidence suggests that antagonistic coevolution between the sexes has led local populations to different equilibria and that crossing of populations at different equilibria has resulted in asymmetry in mating frequencies.