Recent studies demonstrated that orb-weaving spiders may alter web architectures, the amount of silk in webs, or the protein composition of silks in response to variation in amount or type of prey. In this study, we conducted food manipulations to examine three mechanisms by which orb-weaving spiders may adjust the performance of webs to variation in prey by altering the architectures of webs, making structural changes to the diameters of silk threads, and manipulating the material properties or amino acid composition of silk fibers. We fed Nephila pilipes two different types of prey, crickets or flies, and then compared orb structure and the chemical and physical properties of major ampullate (MA) silk between groups. Prey type did not affect orb structures in N. pilipes, except for mesh size. However, MA silk diameter and the stiffness of orbs constructed by spiders fed crickets were significantly greater than for the fly group. MA fibers forcibly silked from N. pilipes fed crickets was significantly thicker, but less stiff, than silk from spiders fed flies. Spiders in the cricket treatment also produced MA silk with slightly, but statistically significantly, more serine than silk from spiders in the fly treatment. Percentages of other major amino acids (proline, glycine, and glutamine) did not differ between treatments. This study demonstrated that orb-weaving spiders can simultaneously alter some structural and material properties of MA silk, as well as the physical characteristics of webs, in response to different types of prey.