The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term consequences of aggression in socially living Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) focusing on the emotional response of both aggressors and victims of aggression. Both individuals involved showed an increase in the rate of scratching (a behavioural indicator of anxiety) in the minutes following the aggressive confrontation. Such increase was larger in victims than in aggressors. Multivariate analyses of the factors modulating post-conflict scratching showed that for both the aggressor and the victim the main predictor of post-conflict scratching was its opponent’s post-conflict scratching. These results suggest both opponents shared the same perception of the consequences of aggression, and responded with similar emotional arousal.