Although foraging comprises a set of behaviours that typically vary with resource availability and/or climatic conditions, few studies have analysed how foraging, particularly food hoarding, varies across populations inhabiting different habitats. We carried out an inter-population study on foraging behaviour with the caviomorph rodent Octodon degus collected from two geographically separated populations in central Chile, with contrasting climates. One population was located in a mountainous zone (at 2600 m elevation) characterized by a high-altitude climate. The other population was from a low-altitude Mediterranean climate zone (450 m elevation). Under laboratory conditions, we measured population-specific differences in food consumption and hoarding by recording food utilization. We also assessed whether acclimation played a role in behavioural differences, by using two different sets of animals that had been in captivity for (1) 2 wk or (2) 6 mo, under common conditions. The results showed variation in food hoarding between populations. Individuals from the low-altitude population exclusively displayed scatter hoarding behaviour. In contrast, high-altitude animals carried out larder hoarding combined with scatter hoarding (37.4% and 62.6% respectively). There was no intra-population variation between degus with different acclimation periods under captivity, thus inter-population differences in larder hoarding were maintained despite 6 mo of acclimation to a common environment. The geographic variation observed suggests that larder hoarding is favoured under harsher environmental conditions. We discuss some probable causes for this variation. The lack of effect of acclimation suggests that inter-population differences in larder hoarding might be the result of local adaptation or, less likely, it corresponds to an ontogenetically acquired irreversible behaviour.