It has been established that various species exhibit personality, defined as intra-individual consistency and inter-individual variation in behavioural phenotypes. For example, certain individuals may demonstrate consistently greater behavioural reactions and elevated stress responses. We conducted playback experiments and hormonal analyses on male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in captivity to investigate the patterns and proximate mediators of individual variations in behavioural reactions. We found intra-individual consistency and inter-individual variation in behavioural reactions (intensive vigilance towards the direction of speakers) to vocalisations by unfamiliar chimpanzees. This behavioural reaction was positively correlated with changes in salivary cortisol concentration, suggesting that stress is a proximate factor mediating the variation in behavioural reactions. The males who were highly responsive to the conspecific vocalisation also exhibited high behavioural reactions towards the neutral broadcast stimulus (the jungle crow’s Corvus macrorhynchos ‘ka’ vocalisation). This observation is consistent with the notion that male chimpanzees vary in intrinsic behavioural tendency to different stimuli.