Information about the entry of Armillaria into first-rotation pine and spruce stands was obtained by searching for infected stumps, rhizomorph systems or trees that had been killed. In pines Armillaria foci were very rare. In pure Norway spruce Armillaria lutea and A. mellea were detected in stumps but rhizomorphs did not extend into the soil; in Norway spruce mixed with oak, by contrast, A. lutea sometimes produced extensive rhizomorph systems. In Sitka spruce small groups of trees had been killed by A. ostoyae. All foci investigated in conifers contained different genotypes of Armillaria and probably originated from spore infection of stumps created by thinning. Some implications of these findings are discussed.