White pine blister rust in Korea, Japan and other Asian regions: comparisons and implications for North America



This article briefly reviews the history of white pine blister rust, attributed to Cronartium ribicola, and addresses current research and management issues in South Korea, Japan and other regions of eastern Asia (China, Russia and Himalaya). For each region, the distribution, damage, aecial hosts, telial hosts and management of C. ribicola and other blister rust fungi on native and introduced white pines are summarized. In addition, blister rust behaviours in eastern Asia and North America are compared; and the potential evolutionary and management implications are discussed.