The pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner and Buhrer, J. Agric Res. 48, 1934, 949), Nickle (J. Nematol. 2, 1970, 375), is the causative agent of the pine wilt disease and causes serious damage to pine forests around the world. During a survey for the pinewood nematode, four other Bursaphelenchus species (Bursaphelenchus mucronatus, B. sexdentati, B. anamurius and B. vallesianus) were isolated from wilted pine trees in Turkey. To understand the effects of these Bursaphelenchus species on wilting of pine trees, a study was conducted under greenhouse conditions. Two-year-old seedlings of three pine species (Pinus nigra, P. brutia and P. pinea) and one cedar species (Cedrus libani) were used. Fifteen seedlings of each species were inoculated with nematodes and 10 seedlings of each species served as controls. The inoculum densities used for each seedling contained approximately 1000 (±100) nematodes of all life stages in 0.25 ml of distilled water. The first wilting symptoms were observed in the fifth week in all pine species but not in the cedar seedlings. All seeding mortality occurred between the 5th and 13th weeks of the study; no mortality was observed outside of this period. The most pathogenic nematode species was B. mucronatus, closely followed by the other species. The most susceptible seedling species was P. nigra, and C. libani was the most resistant species.