• Breeding value;
  • dogs;
  • hip dysplasia;
  • linear model;
  • threshold model


The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters, genetic trends and breeding values using linear model (LM) and threshold model (TM) for the development of hip dysplasia (HD) in Labrador Retrievers in the Czech Republic (n = 3151). The right and left hip joints were evaluated separately using the Fédération Cynologique Internationale scoring system. Four linear and four TMs were tested for the correct estimation of genetic parameters. All the tested models utilized fixed effects of sex, assessor, year of birth, regression of age at evaluation, random direct genetic effects and the effect of the animals’ permanent environments. The models differed in the inclusion of the following effects: fixed effects of regression of inbreeding coefficient, random maternal effect and random effect of the maternal permanent environment. Compared to the TM, the LM provided lower coefficients of direct (0.25–0.29 versus 0.26–0.35) and maternal heritability (0.01–0.02 versus 0.03–0.05), repeatability (0.76–0.77 versus 0.78–0.83) and of the correlation between direct and maternal effects (−0.55 to −0.21 versus −0.80 to −0.27). In the tested models, no statistical significance was found for fixed regression of inbreeding coefficients or for the random effect of the permanent maternal environment. In spite of the similarity of the LM and TM results, the TM is recommended as the more suitable model for estimating genetic parameters and subsequent breeding values for HD in Labrador Retrievers in the Czech Republic.