The genetic relationship between 195 Mangalica and 79 non-Mangalica pigs was studied using mitochondrial D-loop SNP genotyping. Altogether, 35 polymorphic sites and 27 haplotypes were identified. Of the haplotypes, eight and 16 are Mangalica and non-Mangalica specific, respectively, while three contain both Mangalica and non-Mangalica individuals. Genetic distance values and phylogenetic analysis indicate that Mangalica individuals are very closely related, and five haplotypes represent approximately 92% of the Mangalica pigs involved in the study, thus determining the major maternal lineages. In contrast to previous microsatellite studies, individuals of Mangalica could not be distinguished as three separate breeds using mtDNA genotyping. Comparing modern and archaeological mtDNA sequences revealed that present day Mangalica is related to pigs that lived in the Carpathian basin where postulated ancestors of Mangalica also lived. This is the first DNA-based genetic evidence to support the described breeding history of Mangalica.