Two-thirds of the organic matrix in urinary stones consists of proteins. Their relationship to calculogenesis remains controversial with regard to their effect as inhibitors or promoters during stone formation. The purpose of the present study was to determine the differences in peptide and protein pattern between the urine of stone formers (n = 23) and control dogs (n = 12), as well as between organic matrix of different urinary stones (struvite n = 11, calcium oxalate n = 8, uric acid n = 4) using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Specific differences in protein and peptide profiles were found in the organic matrix of different mineral compositions. Characteristic differences were also found in urinary peptide and protein pattern especially in molecular masses below 20 kDa between affected and healthy dogs. Based on the obtained molecular masses they were in some cases tentatively identified as proteins that are known to be involved in stone formation in humans. The study shows that in dogs, specific-urinary peptides and proteins might be associated with urolithiasis. It indicates the importance to further characterize those proteins for possible diagnostic purposes in prognosis and therapy.