The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary Rhodobacter capsulatus on lipid fractions and egg-yolk fatty acid composition in laying hens. Thirty-six laying hens (30 weeks old) were randomly assigned into two dietary groups fed diets with (0.04%) or without (control) R. capsulatus for a 60-day feeding trial. Dietary R. capsulatus decreased (p < 0.05) serum and hepatic cholesterol and increased (p < 0.05) the excreta cholesterol, and resultant lower (p < 0.05) cholesterol contents in egg yolk. The concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and ratio to saturated fatty acids in egg yolk was improved (p < 0.05) by dietary R. capsulatus. The concentration of hepatic bile acid was increased (p < 0.05) and excreta bile acid was decreased (p < 0.01) in the laying hens fed R. capsulatus diet. The incorporation of 1-14C-palmitic acid into hepatic lipids and lipid fractions was increased (p < 0.05) in laying hens fed R. capsulatus diet. Moreover, dietary R. capsulatus did not appear to cause any adverse effects on laying hen performances. Therefore, dietary supplementation of R. capsulatus in layer diets may be a feasible means of producing eggs with lower cholesterol and higher PUFA contents for health conscious consumers.