• beetle;
  • bioassay;
  • insecticide;
  • knockdown;
  • mortality;
  • viticulture

Abstract:  Bioassays were conducted to compare the residual toxicity and leaf protection activity of conventional broad-spectrum and reduced-risk insecticides against the rose chafer, Macrodactylus subspinosus. Insecticides were applied to a Vitis labrusca (F.) vineyard and residues were aged for 1, 3 or 7 days before leaves were collected and exposed to beetles in no-choice tests. Azinphosmethyl caused rapid knockdown and mortality for up to 1 week after application, with 1-day-old residues providing 95.6% protection against feeding, dropping to 51.6% when residues were a week old. Fenpropathrin caused mortality and knockdown after beetles had been exposed to fresh residues for 72 h. Although these effects diminished as residues aged, this compound provided the best protection of leaves against beetle feeding, with 77.9% reduction in feeding compared with the control after 7 days of aging in the vineyard. Of the reduced-risk insecticides, imidacloprid caused the greatest initial mortality and knockdown of beetles, providing protection against feeding that was equivalent to azinphosmethyl. Exposure to azadirachtin caused a low level of knockdown and mortality when residues were 1- and 3-days old. Protection against feeding was also low, lasting for only 3 days. Beetles were minimally affected by capsaicin and kaolin, with mortality and knockdown seen only when beetles were exposed to 1-day-old residues for 72 h. Foliage protection from these compounds was minimal, with between 10 and 15% reduction in feeding injury. Results are discussed in relation to development of semi-field bioassay methods for evaluating reduced-risk insecticides, and the management of M. subspinosus within grape pest management programs.