Abstract: Analysis of the genetic diversity among 27 different geographical populations of Bemisia tabaci and determination of biotypes of B. tabaci in China based on amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtDNA COI) gene sequences were conducted. In AFLP assay, the use of five primer combinations selected from 64 primer combinations allowed the identification of 229 polymorphic bands (97.03%) from 60 to 500 bp, suggesting abundant genetic diversity among different geographical populations of B. tabaci. To further identify biotypes of B. tabaci in China, the mtDNA COI gene sequences of nine representative populations from China, Israel and Spain were obtained. Molecular phylogenetic tree based on AFLP and mtDNA COI gene analyses revealed the presence, in China, of at least four different genetic groups of B. tabaci. B biotype, Q biotype and two non-B/Q biotype. B biotype was distributed nationwide. Q biotype was present only in the local region of China including the YunNan province and BeiJing city. This was also the first report about the invasion of Q biotype into China. Of the other two non-B/Q biotype groups, one was found in ShanDong and HeBei provinces, and another in ZheJiang province. The non-B/Q biotype ZheJiang population showed very high similarity with another Asian population India-IW (AF110704) in mtDNA COI sequences and was possibly a Chinese indigenous population. The close monitoring of the Q biotype in locales of China where commercial plants were exported or imported, is now essential to avoid the further accidental distribution of the Q biotype.