Effects of photoperiod and temperature on the development and diapause of the bark beetle Ips typographus

Authors

  • P. Doležal,

    1. Institute of Entomology, Biology Centre of the Academy of Sciences, and the Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of South Bohemia, České Budějovice, Czech Republic
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  • F. Sehnal

    1. Institute of Entomology, Biology Centre of the Academy of Sciences, and the Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of South Bohemia, České Budějovice, Czech Republic
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Author's address: Petr Doležal (corresponding author), Institute of Entomology, Biology Centre of the Academy of Sciences, and the Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of South Bohemia, Branišovská 31, 370 05 České Budějovice, Czech Republic. E-mail: Dolezal@entu.cas.cz

Abstract

Abstract:  Diapause was induced in a Central European population of Ips typographus grown at 20°C when the day length decreased below 16 h [50% diapause incidence occurred in the 14.7:9.3 h L:D (light:dark) regime]. The non-diapausing adults fed on days 2–6 and 10–14 after the ecdysis and swarmed after the second feeding bout with chorionated eggs in the ovaries and sperm in the spermiducts. Neither gonads nor the flight muscles matured and no swarming occurred in the diapausing adults. The development from egg to adult took about 34 days in both 18:6 h (no diapause) and 12:12 h L:D (diapause) regimes, but it was extended by up to 30% without diapause induction when only larvae or pupae were exposed to L:D 12:12 h. Diapause was induced in insects reared at L:D 12:12 h through the last larval and the pupal instars and/or in the adult stage. Temperature ≥ 23°C prevented diapause induction at L:D 12:12 h but diapause occurred at L:D 14:10 h associated with 26:6°C thermoperiod. The effect of thermoperiods on the developmental rate requires further research. Exposure of the non-diapausing adults to 5°C for several days blocked feeding and evoked a diapause-like state, whereas diapausing adults fed and their gonads slowly developed at this temperature. Diapausing adults exposed in forest to low night temperatures and transferred in October to 20°C readily reproduced at 18:6, but not 12:12 h L:D photoperiods. After 2-months at 5°C and darkness, they became insensitive to the photoperiod, matured and most of them also swarmed at 20°C in the 12:12 h L:D regime. In a Scandinavian population, diapause occurred at 18:6 h L:D and was terminated either by exposure to 5°C or by very long photoperiod (L:D 20:4 h) combined with high temperature (23°C).

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