Forty-four parthenogenetic lineages of Myzus persicae s.l. (Sulzer) from tobacco crops and peach orchards located in various regions of Greece were examined to determine their response to the insecticide pymetrozine using leaf-dip bio-assays. The results show that the aphid has not developed resistance, as all lineages exhibited resistance factors bellow 6.0. In transmission experiments of potato virus Y (PVY) using a lineage of the tobacco-adapted subspecies M. persicae nicotianae Blackman on tobacco plants, one foliar application with pymetrozine provided adequate protection for 7 days. Pymetrozine significantly reduced both virus acquisition and inoculation compared with the untreated control and the reduction was comparable to a mineral oil application. These results are discussed in terms of the advantage of incorporating pymetrozine as a compound of pest management strategies against M. persicae s.l. and for control of non-persistent viruses, especially in crops such as tobacco because of the high selection pressure from neonicotinoids resulting in potential of resistance developing in aphid populations.