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Insecticidal activities of essential oil of Callistemon viminalis applied as fumigant and powder against two bruchids

Authors

  • A. F. Ndomo,

    1.  Laboratory of Applied and Environmental Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon
    2.  Laboratory of Nutrition, Food Sciences and Medicinal Plants Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon
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  • L. A. Tapondjou,

    1.  Laboratory of Applied and Environmental Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, Dschang, Cameroon
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  • L. T. Ngamo,

    1.  Department of Biological Sciences, University of Ngaoundéré, Ngaoundéré, Cameroon
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  • T. Hance

    1.  Research Centre on the Biodiversity, Louvain-la Neuve, Belgium
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Léon Azefack Tapondjou (corresponding author), Laboratory of Applied and Environmental Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, P.O. Box 183, Dschang, Cameroon. E-mail: tapondjou2001@yahoo.fr

Abstract

The fumigant and contact toxicity of essential oil (EO) extracted from the leaves of Callistemon viminalis and its aromatized clay powder (ACP) was evaluated against adults of Acanthoscelides obtectus and Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The results obtained for fumigation assays showed that C. maculatus seems to be more susceptible (LC50 = 0.019 μl/cm3) to the vapours of the essential oil than A. obtectus (LC50 = 0.011 μl/cm3) after 12 h exposure. On the other hand, A. obtectus seems to be more susceptible (LD50 = 0.133 μl/g) to the essential oil applied by contact on grains than C. maculatus (LD50 = 0.170 μl/g) after 2 days exposure. The ACP was also very toxic towards the adults of A. obtectus (LD50 = 0.100 μl/g) and C. maculatus (LD50 = 0.098 μl/g) by contact on grains. At the doses of 0.133 μl/g and 0.266 μl/g, mortalities caused by ACP on grains were higher than those caused by the same dose of EO against the two bruchids. It is also established that both the EO and the ACP caused higher inhibition of F1 progeny production of A. obtectus than that of C. maculatus. The loss of insecticidal activity of the two materials in the course of time has been observed; however, the toxicity of the ACP was more persistent than that of the oil in the course of time when applied on grains. These results suggest that EO from the leaves of C. viminalis can be used as fumigant agent against A. obtectus and C. maculatus. In addition, it could be advisable to use an adsorbent mineral material as carrier of this EO for the prolongation of its insecticidal activity in the course of time.

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