The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is one of the most important pest species of maize in several countries of Central and Eastern Europe. This pest insect has invaded from the USA and is mainly controlled by insecticides in the EU. In the USA reliance on insecticides seems to decrease due to transgenic maize production. The EU project Diabr-Act aims at establishing a harmonized and sustainable control strategy for western corn rootworm populations in Europe. In this respect, current chemical control strategies used in the USA and EU are described. Seed, soil and foliar treatments as well as transgenically protected maize are discussed. Specific attention is given to insecticide resistance. Seed treatment has clear environmental benefits, but factors influencing the efficacy should be declared. Soil and foliar treatments have perspectives, though new technologies limiting environmental hazards should be considered. Transgenic maize may have serious perspectives.