Soybean aphids, Aphis glycines Matsumura, and soybean cyst nematodes, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, are economic pests of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., in the north-central United States. Combined, these pests may account for 20–50% of yield reductions in a soybean crop. Only limited information is available concerning the interaction of these two pests on soybean production. During the summers of 2006 and 2007, we conducted a field-experiment near Urbana, IL, to evaluate the effect of resistant and susceptible soybean lines on the development and reproduction of both pests in combination with each other. We also examined how each pest, as well as their interaction, affected the yield of susceptible and resistant soybean lines. Soybean plants grown within caged plots were infested with soybean aphids and soybean cyst nematodes; cumulative aphid days and soybean cyst nematode egg densities were determined at the end of each growing season. Soybean aphids were able to survive on all four soybean lines in both years of this study; however, aphid-resistant lines generally had fewer cumulative aphid days than aphid-susceptible lines. Likewise, nematode-resistant lines typically had fewer eggs than nematode-susceptible lines. During both years, we failed to observe a significant interaction between these two pests on the reproduction of one another. Yield data from 2006 was inconclusive; however, results from 2007 suggest that yield-loss when soybean aphids and soybean cyst nematodes occur jointly is not significantly greater than when these two pests occur independently. The relationship between these two pests, and our inability to observe an interaction, are discussed.